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SDDS
Special Data
Dissemination Standard

Date of last update: 04/09/2003

MERCHANDISE TRADE

Category Provider's Data

Contact Person

Fábio Martins Faria

Organization

Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior, Secretaria de Comércio Exterior, Departamento de Comércio Exterior
Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco J, 8º andar
Brasília (DF) - Brasil
CEP 70.053-900

Phone Number

55 61 2109-7077

Fax Number

55 61 2109-7081

E-mail

mdic-secex@mdic.gov.br

 

Description
The Data: Coverage, Periodicity, and Timeliness

Coverage characteristics

Data are disseminated in US$ millions and in tons for both exports (FOB) and imports (FOB).

Preliminary monthly data on exports and imports of goods, and the balance of trade are released in a press release by the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC), in current values, and are not seasonally adjusted.

Exports are presented by aggregate factor (commodities and industrialized products, the latter divided into manufactured and semi-manufactured); by product group; primary products by order of value; primary products by aggregate factor; primary products by country; by country and economic bloc; and by production area (states of the federation). Imports are presented by product group; by primary product with a breakdown by aggregate factor and by country; by country and economic bloc; by production area; and by major enterprises, with a breakdown for enterprises by value bracket. The trade balance is also presented by country and economic bloc, as well as by section and chapter of the MERCOSUR Common Classification (NCM).

The foreign trade statistics cover the entire national territory, excluding special operations such as: monetary gold; securities; banknotes and coins in circulation; temporary exports of goods in a given state; goods for repair (not counting the value of the repair); goods to be used in fairs and other events; goods leased for less than one year, goods in transit; customs deposits. When there is no possibility of identifying the specific code of products, some transactions are included as Special Balance of Trade Transactions: trade of ships and aircraft used for international transport; trade of drilling platforms in international waters; provisioning of ships, aircraft and other transport vehicles (on-board consumption); parcel post; nonfinancial leases; migrants' personal property; donations; and duty-free stores. Transactions always included in the balance of trade are: ordinary operations; nonmonetary gold; military goods; water, gas and electricity; financial leases, free trade zones and special customs areas; re-exportation; trade for the government’s account; securities; banknotes and coins not entering circulation, drawback.

There is no estimate for shuttle trade.

The tariff breakdown conforms to the NCM (MERCOSUR Common Classification), based on the Harmonized System implemented in 1989.

Brazil uses the "General" category for exports and the "Special" category for imports, except for free trade zones, where the "General" category also applies to imports.

Effective April 1999, the compilation of import statistics is when goods are cleared through customs, as it is the practice with the compilation of export statistics.

Periodicity

Monthly.

Timeliness

Approximately three weeks after the end of the reference month.
Access by the Public

Advance dissemination of release calendar

An advance release calendar that gives one quarter ahead notice of the release dates is published on the website of the Central Bank of Brazil (http://www.bcb.gov.br/sddsi/calendar_i.htm) and on the IMF’s Data Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (http://dsbb.imf.org).

Simultaneous release to all interested parties

The data are released in a press release and in the bulletin "Balança Comercial Brasileira" [Brazilian Balance of Trade], published by the Secretariat of Foreign Trade of the MDIC. The information is made available in Portuguese on the Internet at the same time (http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/secex/depPlaDesComExterior/indEstatisticas/balComercial.php).
Integrity

Dissemination of terms and conditions under which official statistics are produced, including those relating to confidentiality of individual responses

The Decree 660 (9/25/92) created the Integrated Foreign Trade System (SISCOMEX), which is an administrative tool that integrates the activities of recording, monitoring, and controlling foreign trade operations, stipulating that "information on foreign trade operations [...] will be processed exclusively through SISCOMEX, starting on the date of its implementation." This affects the compilation and the monitoring of all the external trade data, because the SISCOMEX necessarily centralizes all information on imports and exports of the country.

The Provisional Measure 1799 (1/1/99) delegated to the MDIC specific authority in foreign trade matters.

Both the Decree 660 and the Provisional Measure 1799 are available in Portuguese to the public at the website page of the Presidency of the Republic, under search of decrees, provisional measures and laws (http://www.planalto.gov.br).

According to these laws, dissemination of data by the MDIC is mandatory and free of charge.

Identification of internal government access to data before release

No authority outside the MDIC and the Ministry of Finance is given advance access.

Identification of ministerial commentary on the occasion of statistical releases

In the presentation of balance of trade data, the MDIC comments on the published data.

Provision of information about revision and advance notice of major changes in methodology

The preliminary data are duly identified as such, and corrections are made whenever recording errors are detected.

For exports, the data are considered final at the end of the first half of the following year. As for imports, there is still no set closing schedule.

Changes in methodology and the method of compiling data are published on a timely basis in the monthly bulletin.

Quality

Dissemination of documentation on methodology and sources used in preparing statistics

Although no documentation is disseminated at present, information on the methodology can be provided by the contact person above on request.

Dissemination of component detail, reconcilliations with related data, and statistical frameworks that support statistical cross-checks and provide assurance of reasonableness

SISCOMEX is a system that obligatorily integrates -- in a single format -- the activities of recording, monitoring, and controlling all Brazilian foreign trade operations.

The monthly bulletin contains detailed information, namely: exports by primary product, by primary product and destination country, imports by primary product, by primary product and country of origin. Monthly data are also published on exports and imports with MERCOSUR countries (Balança Comercial Brasileira: - MERCOSUR), also available in Portuguese on the Internet at http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/secex/depPlaDesComExterior/indEstatisticas/balComercial.php.

The MDIC publishes in Portuguese the monthly bulletin "Balança Comercial Brasileira" [Brazilian Balance of Trade] (http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/secex/depPlaDesComExterior/indEstatisticas/balComercial.php), which offers monthly data for exports and imports. Exports are presented by aggregate factor (commodities and industrialized products, the latter divided into manufactured and semi-manufactured); by product group; primary products by order of value; primary products by aggregate factor; primary products by country; by country and economic bloc; and by production area (states of the federation). Imports are presented by product group; by primary product with a breakdown by aggregate factor and by country; by country and economic bloc; by production area; and by major enterprises, with a breakdown for enterprises by value bracket. The trade balance is also presented by country and economic bloc, as well as by section and chapter of the MERCOSUR Common Classification (NCM).

The External Sector section of the Central Bank Press Release and the Central Bank Annual Report include merchandise trade data that could be used for cross-checking the balance of payments. The Monthly Bulletin of the Central Bank also disseminates quarterly balance of payments series for the six last quarters and annual data for the previous five years.

Notes

Summary page on observance and transition plan

 

Dissemination Formats
Hardcopy
X X News release The data are released by the Secretary of Foreign Trade (SECEX) in a press release in Portuguese and in the bulletin "Balança Comercial Brasileira" [Brazilian Balance of Trade], published every month by the Secretariat of Foreign Trade of the MDIC. The information is freely available in Portuguese on the internet at (http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/secex/depPlaDesComExterior/indEstatisticas/balComercial.php).

The Central Bank Press Release also contains a table in the balance of payments, which includes the balance of trade, and is distributed free of charge to the press in printed form at the time of its publication.

    Weekly bulletin  
  X Monthly bulletin The bulletin "Balança Comercial Brasileira" of the MDIC is distributed in printed form.

The Central Bank Bulletins contain monthly series of the balance of trade  and   are available in Portuguese and in English at the Central Bank's library or by a paid subscription from:

DEMAP/DISUP/SUIMP
SIG - Quadra 8 – Lote 2025
70610-400 Brasilia (DF) - Brasil

Telephone 55 61 3344-1554
Fax 55 61 3344-2982
e-mail: demap.disup@bcb.gov.br

The cost is R$ 19.05 per issue.

    Quarterly bulletin  
    Other  
Electronic media
X   On-line country bulletin board or database  
  X Internet address The bulletin "Balança Comercial Brasileira" of the MDIC is available free of charge in Portuguese on the Internet at http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/secex/depPlaDesComExterior/indEstatisticas/balComercial.php.

The Central Bank Press Release also contains a table in the balance of payments, which includes the balance of trade, and is available on the Central Bank website at http://www.bcb.gov.br/?FOREIGNSECTOR

Central Bank Bulletin also provides the balance of trade monthly series at: http://www.bcb.gov.br/?BULLETIN

    Diskette  
    CD ROM:  
    Other  

 

Summary Methodology
Analytical framework, concepts, definitions, and classifications (including reference to applicable guidelines)
The balance of trade presents data on merchandise exports and imports (services not included), compiled electronically by the MDIC using SISCOMEX, in conformity with the Harmonized System (SH).

The compilation of Brazilian foreign trade statistics through 1992 takes account of operations with exchange cover and in local currency. Since 1993, the statistics have taken account of all inflows and outflows of goods, regardless of the type of exchange cover, except goods in transit. The international recommendations of the UN are followed (DOC. Series M No. 52, Rev. 1 of 1983 and DOC. Series M no. 52, Rev. 2 of 1996), as well as those of LAIA (Manual of Concepts and Definitions, 1996) and of MERCOSUR (Manual on Harmonization of the Methodologies Used to Prepare Foreign Trade Statistics in the MERCOSUR Area).

Brazil uses the "General" category for exports and the "Special" category for imports, except for free trade zones, where the "General" category is also used.

Effective April 1999, the time of compilation of import statistics is when goods are cleared through customs, as was true previously with the compilation of export statistics.

The goods included in the balance of trade are: ordinary operations, nonmonetary gold, military goods, water, gas and electricity, financial leases, free trade zones and special customs areas, re-exportation, trade for the government’s account, securities, banknotes and coins not entering circulation, and drawback.

When it is impossible to identify a specific product code, some transactions are included as Special Balance of Trade Transactions: trade of ships and aircraft used for international transport, trade of drilling platforms in international waters, provisioning of ships, aircraft, and other transport, vehicles, parcel post, nonfinancial leases, migrants' personal property, donations, and free trade zones.

Special operations excluded from the balance of trade are: monetary gold, securities, banknotes and coins in circulation, temporary exports and imports of goods in a given state, goods for repair (not counting the value of the repair), goods to be used in fairs, shows and other events, goods leased for less than one year, goods in transit, and customs deposits.

Scope of the data (coverage of, e.g., institutional units, transactions and stock, commodities, industries, and geographic areas)
Export statistics must include goods that diminish the country’s stock of material resources. Therefore, the goods included in the balance of trade are: ordinary operations, non-monetary gold, military goods, water, gas and electricity, financial leases, free trade zones and special customs areas, re-exportation, trade for the government’s account, securities, banknotes and coins not entering circulation, and drawback.

When it is impossible to identify a specific product code, some transactions are included as Special Balance of Trade Transactions: trade of ships and aircraft used in international transportation, trade of drilling platforms in international waters, provisioning of ships, aircraft, and other transport vehicles (on-board consumption), parcel post, nonfinancial leases, migrants' personal property, donations, and free trade zones.

Special operations excluded from the balance of trade are: monetary gold, securities, banknotes and coins in circulation, temporary imports and exports of goods in a given state, goods for repair (not counting the value of the repair), goods to be used in fairs, shows and other events, goods leased for less than one year, goods in transit, and customs deposits.

The entire national territory is covered in the computing of foreign trade statistics.

There is no estimate for shuttle trade.

Accounting conventions (e.g. time of recording, valuation methods)
The data, historical and not seasonally adjusted, are expressed in US$ millions FOB and in tons. The tariff breakdown accords with the MERCOSUR Common Classification from 1996 onward. Earlier, the Brazilian Classification of Goods (NBM) was used; both classifications are based on the Harmonized System.

For the compilation of bilateral statistics regarding exports, the final known country of destination is considered and, for imports, the country of origin.

Up to 1/25/99, conversion to dollars was based on the exchange rate of the last day of the preceding month. On 1/26/99, the exchange rate on the business day immediately preceding the date of the exchange began to be used.

Brazil is a signatory of the WTO Customs Valuation Agreement.

Nature of the basic data (e.g., administrative records, surveys censuses, combinations of these)
Calculations are based on SISCOMEX data compiled by SECEX in the MDIC. Data are gathered on volume, quantity, value and average price, according to the country of origin/destination.

Until 1992, foreign trade operations were calculated on the basis of export and import permits. Since 1993 in the case of exports and 1997 in the case of imports, the activities of recording, monitoring, and controlling foreign trade transactions have been integrated in a single computerized information system with exclusive, automatic processing: SISCOMEX. The system is administered jointly by the Secretariat of Foreign Trade (SECEX), the Secretariat of Federal Revenue (SRF) and the Central Bank of Brazil (BACEN), the agencies responsible for managing foreign trade. To operate in the system, companies must be listed in the Register of Exporters and Importers (REI). However, registration in the system does not signify automatic permission to carry out foreign purchase and sale transactions.

Compilation practices (e.g., weighting schemes, imputation methods, balancing/cross-checking techniques)
Data available in the Alice System are aggregated by product, chapter, country, economic bloc, company (internal government use), states of the federation, transport routes and ports, and are interlinked, with monthly data accumulated since 1992.
Other aspects (e.g., seasonal adjustment, disclosure avoidance, base years, reference years, transformations from fiscal to calendar years)